"MOCCASIN CREEK BRIDGE"
The picture at the top of the page was the old wooden bridge that covered the Moccasin Creek, where the creek turns and enters the Wisconsin River, just before going up the hill on the road from Port Edwards to Nekoosa and about 20 rods north of the Nekoosa cemetery. The picture is a sea green "carbon" print, mounted on celluloid. I made this picture about 1905 and did the carbon work then. This character of printing under negatives is very little used to-day except in very high class work for special purposes. The pigment, whether carbon, red chalk, sea green or other chalks in held under gelatine coat on a paper base. The tissue sensitized with bichromate of potash and allowed to dry. Then by using a stripping negative and now-days by turning the negative over and printing with the positive side toward the tissue, the exposure is made by either sun, light or artificial light. When properly exposed, which is a matter of practice, the issue is then wet and pressed down onto what ever permanent base is desired, whether paper, porcelain with roughened surface like sand blast, or else on celluloid as this print is mounted. The paper base is soaked off, under warm water, and all the free carbon is washed out leaving only the various gradations of pigment that has been fixed under the exposure and action of the light, which has hardened the gelatine. The most beautiful effects may be produced and most lasting pictures are the results.
"LOCAL WILD FLOWERS"
White Baneberry or Dolls Eyes
The large colored enlargement was made from an original negative made by the author. It shows the fruit of the Wild Baneberry that is found in the woods during April and May and fruits in the early fall. This was found on Long Island among all the vines. This print is a fine hand colored enlargement of the 4 ¼ x 6 ½ original negative.
BLUETS at the left
Botanically, this flower is "Houstonia Caerulea". The flower grows among the plants that are not over 3 to 5 inches tall. Flower is slightly tube shaped and is generally white in color. It grows in close groups in moist places and somewhat shady. This patch was found on the river side of the cement road between Port Edwards and Nekoosa. Blooms in early spring to mid summer.
CANADA OR PLUMED THISTLE to the right
Botanically the Plumed Thistle is called "Cirsium - Lanceolatum". It received its name from a Greek work meaning, a swelled vein, for which the Thistle was a reputed remedy. This flower was pictured from a beautiful tall plant in full bloom standing about eight feet high and with a large spreading top. The blooms were a beautiful purple and plumed shape. It is a distinct nuisance so far as fields are concerned, but as a flower it has real beauty.
PORTRAIT OF THE AUTHOR
The authors christened name is Theodore Asa Taylor, nicknamed Tom and most generally known by the appellation. My mother was an English woman from the family of Blakes in England. My father was Scotch-Irish whose middle name was Mc Clenethenan, whose forefather claimed a plaid and clan. My hobbies are photography and wild flowers.
I have deemed it a fitting place to include in this ALBUM my collection of colored enlargements and other prints of wild flowers that I have taken. This section is peculiarly blessed with wild flowers because of its situation. The sandy soils to the south of the city, the river and marshes in a generally central location and the heavier ground of solid clay to the north. The early spring flowers like blood-root, spring beauties, dutchman’s breeches, hepaticas found in the clay solid, a little later in the spring on the sand are found the lupin, hairy beard tongue, spiderwort or Job’s tears, old man’s whiskers. A favorite spot for these is down on Highway 13 on both sides of Lake Nepco.
The following talk on flowers and a little historical sketch is probably in order here.
Aside from a casual notion relative to flowers nothing of real study was begun until Nathian Grew, an English Botanist, announced in 1682 that flowers reproduced by pollen from one plant being brought in contact with another. Linnaeus of Sweden, some fifty years later, supported this theory and brought some proof.
Then another fifty years after Linnaeus, Springel came forward and said that the others before him had told but half the truth and presented the idea that flowers were reproduced by reason of insects carrying pollen from the stamen of the flower to pistil.
But not until 1859, when Darwin, after many years of intense and proved study, announced to the world his Origin of Species by Natural Selection, did the world know the whole truth of nature’s scheme of things. Darwin further pointed out that it was not only the insect that carried the pollen from the stamen of the flower to its pistil but that it was the pollen carried from the stamen of one flower to the pistil of another flower, producing cross fertilization, that did the act.
Evolution blossomed out in full, from Darwin’s announcement and was immediately followed by all the wild burst of approval and disapproval that any great movement has always caused.
Evolution, however, remains a fact regardless of its critics. The whole plan and study of evolution would be a simple one it its course was a straight line like the shot fired from a cannon but it is more like the bursting of a shell, whose pieces in turn burst and they again burst without number and each piece overflowing with life and the urge to go on and develop into individuals and species without end.
Animate forms that first appeared on the earth were very simple. Probably just as a mass of what we call protoplasm, a jelly like substance without much form but containing a tremendous internal push or urge for continuing, that eventually raised the mass from the lowest to the highest form of life.
Adaptation to its surroundings also accounts for the varieties of the new forms of life. This is telling you in a few moments the evolution principle of life that took ages to develop. Forward marches and many inevitable backslidings of the movement no doubt took place, but the eternal urge inherited from the primal cell pushed life forward into its millions of different forms of development. Its progress was slow and in the animal division it culminated in its attainment in man. In the animal life we have two very pronounced distinctions. One, in the high state of development, reaching INSTINCT in the insect and the other, INTELLIGENCE as in man.
Where one begins and the other leaves off, is not sharply defined and only shows how all forms of life are closely related and interwoven.
To sum up our whole scheme of life we have three grand divisions, first plant life with its fixity of location and state of torpor, second, INSTINCT, and third, INTELLIGENCE.
These three elements, collected into the vital impulse or urge, is common to all plants and animals. The difference in these three impulses is not one of intensity nor more generally one of degree but simply a matter of kind. It is all the results of the activity, that all pervading energy which we have learned to call God. It is the manifestation of the One Life to which we all belong and all created by the one and same God of all Life.
But coming back to our friends the flowers: They are just as full of hopes and fears and desires and impulses as any other division of this created word. Interdependence on the next division of created life, the insects, they have through endless ages developed a community of interest between themselves and the insects best suited to their mode of life and such as will increase their advantages and insure their perpetuation.
Color, size, shape, odor, periods of opening and closing, the buildings of pathways of either color, guides, or ridges, to assist the insects to find their way to the treasure chest of the flowers and their nectar and pollen, have been developed by the flower.
The punishment of the evil doers, their insect enemies, who steal their sweets, is just as certain and ruthless as anything done by humans. My acquaintance with the Bible is probably about that of the average reader. No doubt, such readers have been often astonished at the wonders we have found in the Bible. It is most certainly a wonderful book. I frequently turn to it to see, many times from curiosity, how it treats some specific subject that I am studying.
On this occasion I read to see what it had to offer on this subject. Greatly to my astonishment and wonder I found in the very first chapter of the very first book of the Bible the very classification and purpose that I shall further on describe.
I quote in part as follows, "Gave man domain over everything that moveth upon the earth: I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat, and to every beast of the earth and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat; and it was so."
It has taken man ages to work out a philosophy so that he can now read these lines with any sort of understanding.
It is like many other things in nature that man could have benefited from, had he been able to understand. The wasp made paper and built his home with air chambers ages before man, after the hardest kind of effort, finally worked out a similar process of paper making.
Let us follow through with the thought from the Bible. We have two main kingdoms, the plant and the animal. It is impossible to exactly define them. There are points of contact in both that resemble each other. The best we can do, is to say that after the separation did begin in the primary cell, they represent two divergent developments of life.
The first difference is in the methods of acquiring food. The plant derives all its food directly from the soil, the air and the water, obtaining the two principal elements it must have, carbon and nitrogen.
The animal must have this food also but it cannot obtain it in the way the plant does, but can only digest it after it has been placed in proper combination by the plants. Ultimately the plant nourishes the animal. By animal we mean to include man. Here again sharply drawn lines are impossible, for there are lower forms of animal life which show evidences that it had plant characteristics and also plants which indicate animal trend. Such plants like the pitcher plant feeds on animal life. It forms cups of its leaves, which hold water and drowns certain of the insects that fall into it. The reason here, is that its native soils are lacking in the amount of nitrogen this particular plant desire, so it entraps the insects and they supply the lacking element.
But there is yet another difference between plants and animals that feed on plants, therefore animals must be free to move about.
The animal differs then from the plant, as it has freedom of motion while the plant is fixed. Even in this there are a few exceptions in plants. With this freedom of motion goes an additional and very necessary quality, that of consciousness, while the plant is unconscious.
To sum it all up in easy terms, while the animal and plant is derived from the same common origin or primal cell, they have by gradual development, through vast ages, become separated into two divisions, the plant with the quality of being fixed and without sensibility and the animal with movement and consciousness.
But the plants and animals have never been free from their dependence on each other. To briefly finish off this view of evolution the animal diverged also and its separating into the many species became inevitable. Here again it has no sharp line by which the several families can be described.
It becomes one however of attainments and resolves itself into characteristics that are called instinct and intelligence. Instinct is that quality of action that developed highest in the insect, especially the social order like the ants, and bees, and intelligence highest in animals and man.
Again the difference between man and the other animals is the degree of intelligence. It is briefly given as follows: Intelligence in man is such that he invents tools and implements from unorganized matter and perfects them while the next lower stage, like the elephants and monkeys, the intelligence is lower, it can only invent and use tools and implements from already organized materials. A case right in point was featured in the Chicago Tribune. It gave a picture of a fine collie. Its master had fainted in the apartment and the collie knocked the telephone off the stand and stood in front of it and barked. The telephone operator received the message and immediately notified the police and they hurried to the apartment and found the lady in a dead faint on the floor. That was animal intelligence, using the tools already at hand.
Our summary then, so far as this talk is concerned brings forward three grand divisions.
Torpor as seen in plants, instinct in the animals and intelligence in man, qualified as before stated.
Our interest from here on is in the insects and the flowers. Their lives have become intimately and apparently from necessity bound together. Insects are described as being the six-legged, three part bodied little animals, some with wings and some without. The class includes the bees, both the honey and bumble bee, the ants, wasps, butterflies, and the social insects of that type. The spider is not an insect, being with eight legs, never with wings and are of a family of which there are thousands of members.
By social insects it is meant such as the ants and wasps and bees who build homes and have a well defined inter-related order of life. Their study is most interesting. Some of the insects are found among the fossils of geological ages many periods back. Others undoubtedly were just as far developed as the ant but their bodies and habits did not give the same chance for preservation. The ant of to-day is the same as that in those prehistoric times. We know this because of the amber that is occasionally found with ants embedded in it and their formation is identical with to-day. They could only get into the amber when it was soft and a sweet lure for the ant to feast upon. The ant became entrapped in the soft gum and embedded so that no action of the air was possible and when in ages that followed this, the gum became petrified, the ant was most certainly embalmed as if done by a chemist.
The honey bee is a domesticated animal, just as the horse or cow. The Indian knew nothing of it until it was brought over from Europe. Like the bee, many of our wild flowers come from Europe. The flower, known as the spiderwort or Job’s tears holds the distinction of being one of the few flowers that traveled from the New World to the Old World. The seed was sent from Virginia to John Tradescant in England, who was the gardener for Charles the First. Tradescant’s name has been Latinized and applied to the flower’s name and honorary degree. Originally flowers were probably white but they found that it would be to their advantage to produce all the variations of colors and shapes in order to attract the various insects sensitive to these attributes. It is certainly astonishing to see how vital sweet is in the whole scheme of life. All insects keep up an untiring search for it. Ants in your house is in point. Just this relentless urge on the part of the bee and bumble bee accounts for much of the success of the flower.
No doubt the bees were originally much like the ants and had a hard body surface and without hairs, but the flowers demanded pay in return for the sweet and pollen they made and the hairy bodies of these insects followed in consequence. It is on the hairy bodies of these insects that the pollen is carried from one flower to another. Plants fight against self pollenization, and it is wonderful to see the mechanism employed by the flowers to prevent it. Some plants grow stamens and pistils on separate flowers and the bees must carry the pollen between such flowers to assist in reproduction. The flowers also demand that only pollen of the same family of flowers shall pollenize them. So again it is the persistent habit of the honey bee to keep his visits to one class of flower in gathering sweets until its job is completed. Many and varied, also are the devises of the flowers to make certain that only such kind of insects shall obtain its nectar as will visit flowers of its own class.
The orchid, the most numerous and one of the most interesting flowers, has a deep pocket for its treasure chest, consequently the bumble bee developed a longer tongue than some of the other insects in order that he may gather the sweets, but the orchid makes sure that he shall perform his share by having petals, formed trigger like, that when the bumble bee lands on the petal shelf provided for him, another petal shall clap down on his back and dust him heavily.
Colors attract. The bumble bee likes the blues and purples. The Humming Bird goes especially to the reds and such flowers as the cardinal flower stores sweets deep in its throat that only the long bill of the humming bird can reach. It is stated that there would be more red wild flowers if there were more humming birds.
The odors that flowers put out and the time of day they open to guests, vary greatly. The skunk cabbage, so called from its odor, though I must say I do not think it so terrible, is the first flower to rear its head. It is of the Jack-in-the-pulpit formation, in that the spadix, on which the real flower is located is protected from the early cold by a closely enveloping spathe. The purple or ill-scented trillium belongs to the same class for odor. WHY? Because with the skunk cabbage, it knows that it is too early to hope to find any bumble bees thawed out to call and gather the sweet and deliver the pollen to its own children, so it must depend on the gnats and early flyers of the cold spring weather. Such flyers are hunters after dead meat and decayed matter accumulated during the winter and which they identify by this ill odor. Consequently the flower has gathered the necessary chemicals that will produce that ill scent and then sends out its call to its insect friends that dinner is served. The trillium does the same thing, for the same reason. The white trillium closes before dark but the purple or ill-scented keeps open house and meals at all hours of the night is its notice and it is repaid by its night callers. Evidently the purple trillium is aware that there is more competition in courting the bees than would be the night flying insects.
It is estimated that more than one hundred thousand plants depend on the insects for their existence. Corn and wheat are able to produce so much pollen that they can afford to trust to the wasteful ways of the winds for a conveyance from plant to plant. The flowers can not afford such a course and must court and entertain their insect friends.
Climate and soil of Smyrna in Turkey, Asia, is similar to that of California. The grape and fig are natives there. Both have long been mans closest associate. The fig is most easily grown. Cuttings stuck into the ground readily take root and grow. California had some native fig trees but they produced no fruit worthy the name. After much agitation a San Francisco newspaper, along in the 1888’s shipped from Smyrna many cuttings. They gave out, it is stated, some fourteen thousand cuttings. These were given away and grew. Each year they put out flowers and the fig would appear and grow for a short time, then blight and drop off. This condition continued until the trees attained considerable size but as they bore no fruit the growers began cutting the trees for wood. The Department at Washington was called in and they sent one of their experts to Smyrna to ascertain the cause. In the spring when the fruit begins to appear, he noticed that they held a celebration and danced around like dervishes, to some sort of tune and ceremony, and then from the Capri fig tree, which by the way is a wild fig tree variety, and whose fruit is worthless for eating, they cut fruit and strung them and made wreathes and hung them with further ceremony among the trees of the cultivated orchards. Out from these Capri figs would swarm the tiny knats, of the wasp variety, seeking some place to nest. Into the tiny fruit of the cultivated fig they would bore their way to seek a nest. In this way they would carry pollen from the wild fruit and pollenize the cultivated fruit and it then proceeded to mature the fruit.
Then by rapid transportation the Department shipped the Capri figs to California in time to be distributed among the cultivated trees and the whole problem was solved. Now you will find instead of a wreath of the Capri figs strung with incantations, a small box containing the figs from which the little knats are ready to burst forth and perform the miracle.
The story of the big bumble bee is just as interesting. Sometime after the United States acquired the Hawaii Islands, they thought it would be a grand idea to have the clover for stock, that seemed possible on the Islands. The first crop of clover came up and blossomed and was wonderful, but that was all. Next nothing came up and the seeds did nothing. The Department again was called upon to solve the problem, but the answer was immediate. England had had a similar experience in Australia and this country had long known the need of bumble bees, to pollenize the clover. A fine shipment of bumble bees was immediately sent out and the result was an expected, the clover blossoms of the new crop were pollenized by the busy old bumble bees and the seed became fertile and the new crop followed.
Such stories are common all through the insect life. One of the most interesting books on this subject, to one who cares for such things, will be found in the Library in the children’s division. The title is "Our Insect Friends and Foes" by William Atherton Dupuy.
"JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT – ENLARGEMENT"
The red berries show on the plant at the base of the Old Birch is that of the ripe Jack-in-the-pulpit. This is a very well known but most generally when it is coming out in the spring of the year. It has a beautiful spathe shielding and covering with its canopy top the spadix inside that contains the flowers of the plant.
The bees and bumble bees work their way down into the neck to the sweet contained at the bottom of the flower and in this way scrape off the pollen from the flower onto their hairy bodies and then carry it to the next "Jack" and so pollenize it. Then with the ripening of the flower and producing the fruit that contains seeds, the berry appears in the fall. It has turned a beautiful red and clusters on the head.
The bulb had refurnished itself at the root and is ready to go into winter quarters for the reflowering next spring.
This plant is called "Indian Turnip" and was supposed to be an Indian remedy for colds and used as an irritant in poultice. "Jack" is not the recognized by that name in the Old Gray Manual. He has a very dignified Latin name "Arisaema" Indian-Turnip or Dragon-Arum, and when you locate him you will find he is of that family with a further name of "Triphyllum". It grows in moist woods and shady locations and comes in early spring and ripens in middle fall.
"DOG’S TOOTH VIOLET"
or Adder’s Tongue
The picture at the top of the page is that of a cluster of White Dog’s Tooth Violets. It has its counterpart in the Yellow Dog’s Tooth Violet, also called Adder’s Tongue.
It is not a violet at all but belongs to the Lily family. It’s high sounding Latin name is "Erythronium" with the added word "albidum", the White Dog’s Tooth Violet. This cluster of flowers was taken on the sunny side of a big tree on the river side of the cement road between Port Edwards and Nekoosa. It is a spring flower. It needs moist ground and rich soil. It is a beautiful pinkish white. The leaves he a smooth appearance and mottled greenish color.
"PINK LADY’S SLIPPER"
This large colored enlargement in the center of the page was made from the original picture shown at the right. The picture was taken below the Golf Links in the shady woods where the soil is rich and dry.
This beautiful flower belongs to the Orchid family and has been given a long name as usual. "Cypripedium". The flower stem grows about 10 inches tall. The flower of this branch of the family is a beautiful soft pink. It is among the many that should not be picked for if the blossom is broken off the steam, the rich juices that it will mature never get to the bulb and it will not repeat itself and the plant dies.
The small print to the left of the center picture is from the original negative from which the enlargement on page 103 was made.
This enlargement at the bottom of the page was made from the negative of the original picture, taken in the woods on the Island in the Wisconsin River out from the Bullseye Golf Links. The Trilliums shown are the beautiful white variety.
There are many varieties of the Trillium. The first in the spring usually is the Dwarf, which is different from the others in that the stamens are dark in color or their edges as the name indicated is smaller than the usual run of the plants. The Trillium belongs to the Lily Family. The white trilliums generally close late in the day but the "Purple" or ill-scented Trillium does not close at night. This Trillium has more of a reddish purple than a deep purple color and is generally supposed to be the white trillium growing old and turning this color. This is not the case. The Purple Trillium is as large in flower as the large white ones but has its own reason for its color.
The white trillium courts the bees and butterfly to seek its nectar and pollenize the other flowers so it closes toward the late afternoon to shut out the gnats and night flying insects. The purple trillium seems to sense the competition that it would enter with the white, so it chooses to court the night-flying insects that seek putrid meat and decaying flesh. That accounts for the "ill-scent" and the color is because the purple is usually that of decayed and putrid meat. This color also attracts these flies and other night flying insects. Therefore they seek this colored trillium and receive for they pay in grains of pollen at the bottom of the flower and go on to the next purple trillium and scatter the pollen they have gathered among the other purple trilliums.
This trick of the flowers is followed by the skunk cabbage. The flower comes in advance of the large leaves. It is shaped much like the Jack-in-the-pulpit with its large purplish colored spathe and rich red deep colored throat leading down to the spadix and the nectar. This "smelly" thing has chosen this colored dress and smell for the same purpose that the purple trillium has, to catch the flies and insects that seek out decayed meat and the color and scent of these early flowers bring a host of these little feeders to the table of both flowers, for their grains of pollen instead of a sweet.
To pick the Trilliums will soon run them out for they must have the blossom to rebuild the root substance necessary for new growth the next year.
The picture at the top and right of the page was taken near the shore of Long Island in the Wisconsin River. The water lily grows there in profusion with a background of the rushes and Pickerel Weed. Pickerel Weed is shown at the top of the next page, 107.
This flower rivals all the flowers in beauty and fragrance and under some conditions grows to be very large.
Its roots are the favorite of the big Moose whenever he can get to it. To this same family as the Water Lily belongs the sacred lotus. "From its center Brahma came forth; and Buddha first appeared floating on the mystic flower". The lotus is Buddha’s symbol. The "rose-lily" of the Nile is of the same family and has been successfully brought to flower in this country. The water lily dresses its flowers in the many gorgeous colors of rose, lavender, blue and golden hues.
"CALLA - WATER ARUM"
The picture to the right at the top of the page is of a very pretty water flower that looks like a miniature calla lily. The picture shows a true likeness of the flower. It is found along the road sides in the ditches like the roads to Nekoosa and along the roadside from the Consolidated Wood yard towards Rudolph. It blooms in June.
To the lower left is this picture of the Wild Columbine. It is called Honeysuckle, but this is incorrect. The Honeysuckle is a tubular, trumpet like shaped flower. The Wild Columbine grows in somewhat shady, sandy soil and flowers from April to June. Flowers are long, scarlet with yellow centers. It has a Latin name of "Aquilegia canadensis" and just what its origin is, we are not certain.
This beautiful flower has a younger relative in the smaller Beard-Tongue. The smaller flower grows in profusion in the sandy hill sides along Highway 13 below Nepco Lake. This Giant fellow was photographed along the road-side on the way to South Side just opposite the clay pigeon shooting stand in the City Camp Site. It is a beautiful delicate pink color with a deep throat that you may look down into and see the hairy lining of the throat. It wants to make sure that it shall wipe off the pollen of the bees that have visited the other flowers of its own family. This plant grows about two feet tall, its leaves are inclined to be thick and leather like, but bright green in color. It blooms from May to June. It belongs to a large family of flowering plants. The Figwort Family. Its own particular division is the "Pentstemon" of fifth stamen. It is found in cultivation as well.
This is the picture at the top and to the left of this page. This particular Pickerel-weed was photographed in among the water lilies on the shore of Long Island. This flower grows in abundance along marshy pools.
Its color is a mild bluish cast and the flowers cover a stem sometimes fully four inches in length. Each is a separate flower on the spike head. The bees crawl over them and brush off the pollen they pick up on the other flowers and fly away with a lot gathered in their walk on the flower just visited.
Flowers have received their names from the most absurd situations and for the most foolish reasons, but of course have held those names for so long that a change is probably impossible. This beautiful flower gets the absurd name of Pickerel Weed because in days long since past, fishermen thought that the fish, pickerel, laid their eggs at the base of the roots of these flower plants. They probably do but then they do in the roots of other plants also, but those who named the flower said that the flies seeking the pollen of which this plant is rich, would fly too low and the pickerel would grab them. Then this flower has a Latinized name of "Pontederia" named from Professor in Padua in the 18th century of that name.
The picture of the Wild Lupin is the middle picture on this page. It grows in profusion in the sandy soil on the hills along the Highway 13 and near Lake Nepco. It grows elsewhere but that is the nearest to town. Lupin in Latin is Wolf. This flower plant has been named the Wolf, and was so named by some imaginative farmers of long ago because they thought it "preyed upon the soil" and robbed it of its fertility much like a wolf would prey upon the flocks of this same farmer. So there it is "a wolf". It has a rich light blue color. Thoreau probably resented the name as much as any one for he tried to redeem it from its curse by saying, "the earth is blued with it". It grows in profusion and in clumps and is very hardy. Its Latin name is direct "Lupinus" and has the meaning already explained. It belongs to the Pulse Family, that very large branch with pods like Sweet Clover, Locust, Milk Vetch, Wild Bean, Kidney Bean, Honey Locust, and others.
The wild rose picture to the lower left hand corner is that of a plant growing down on Highway 13, where Snyder had a portable saw mill. The yard was filled with saw dust, yet this hardy rose found it an agreeable locality for its beautiful bloom. It grows the spurs along the stems and near the flower in the deep desire to spear the ants and crawling things that would get into the flower and steal the "sweet" and not earn its stolen fruit. Then the spider weaves a net in and among the thorn in the hope of catching the flies and crawling things that climb up the stalk. It will bloom most of the late spring and through the summer and often way late in the fall.
It is just a rose and it hasn’t been tampered with by giving it any prefix or suffix. Evidently the ancients came to the conclusion that nothing need be added.
"SPIDERWORT - JOB’S TEARS"
At the bottom and to the right hand this beautiful flower occupies the space assigned to it. It has a great many clusters of beautiful blue flowers when in full bloom. It grows in the sandy soil profusely and can be transplanted by taking a good quantity of its own native soil with it. It grows in a sour soil. It will grow easily out in the open and is not afraid of drought. It would be a fine flower to be planted in cemeteries.
It is the only flower that has the distinction of being transplanted from Virginia to England. It has been given a Latinized name of "Tradescant". Tradescant was the gardener for Charles I of England and into this flower bed of royalty this American wild flower was introduced. Most of our flowers have been brought here from the Old Country, so this flower enjoys quite a distinction of being the first and about the only flower to cross back and meet its cousins. It has quite a family of its own among which is the Day-Flower. Its other name is Job’s Tears. The plant remains open all day and when it closes at night the petals contact and squeeze out a little sticky, partly transparent substance, and some one called it "Job’s Tears". Just no reason at all.
This well known flower has several names. "Blue Flag", "Fleur de Lis". The text books say that the name Iris, meaning a deified rainbow, was given this group of plants by the ancients. The Pious Crusader, Louis VII adopted it for the emblem of his house, and "spelling was scarcely an exact science, and the "fleur-de-Louis" soon became corrupted into its present form". Napoleon discarded it for the "golden bees, the symbol in armory for industry and perseverance". However the bees either were made for the Iris or the Iris for the bees, for they depend greatly on each other. The bright yellow stripe down the center of the petal is the guide path to the bee leading to the nectar at the base of the flower. Color and odor seem to be the primary instincts of the bees and insects for they follow after or keep away from colors that pleases or displeases, or odors that entice or repel them. This flower was photographed on the edge of the marsh along the Wisconsin River. It blooms from May to July. It is a member of a large family called "Iris".
This is the second picture on this page. The picture was taken In Mrs. Julius Winden’s garden and the flower’s title is "Baroness Schroeder". It is a very large white double peony.
"BROWN EYED SUSAN"
This is the picture at the bottom of the page to the left. It was taken in a field along the road of Highway 13. It is easily found. It belongs to the very large Thistle family. These flowers are rich in nectar and the bees, wasps, butterflies and beetles pay these flowers continual visits. The flower is a composite, that is the head is a composition of flowers and if you will examine it closely you will see each separate flower with numerous other tiny flowers make up the head. This flower should not be confused with the Asters.
This Wild Mint shown at the right and at the bottom of the page is an easily found flower. It likes both the shade and the sun and the damp and dry so is not limited in its location. The coloring given this print is very correct. This plant belongs to a very large family of which the Wild Thyme, Spear Mint, Squaw Mint, American Penny Royal and others form a part.
This is the left hand picture at the top of the page. The flower head of this plant is composite of tubular florets only, of a deep reddish purple and forming a large flat top. It grows right in among the cat-tails and rushes. It belongs to the thistle family and has some of its characteristics in rough stalk and leaves. This particular plant was taken on the island in the Wisconsin River, just about out from the Consolidated Wood yard.
The butterflies are the most abundant on this flower as their long tongue can reach down in for the sweet that is there.
"JOE PYE WEED"
This wild flower grows tall with a more or less flat top bunch of a head containing flowerlets of purplish cast. It prefers wet land even marshy bogs.
When the early New England Settlers landed in this country they were suffering from maladies of all kinds and among them a fever, probably malaria of some sort. Joe Pye was a Indian Chief, possibly the medicine man as well, and he brewed a tea from this plant that the settlers were glad to use. The story is that it helped and they named this "weed" after the Indian Chief.
Some author has said that there are no weeds--weed is the name we give plants with which we are unacquainted.
"BLAZING STAR" or "KANSAS GAY FEATHER"
This flower belongs to the composite family. It is found along the sandy soils and between here and Plover along the Green Bay Railway and also along the road near the Tourist Park grounds. Also along the railroad tracks between South Side and Port Edwards. It has been called "Kansas Gay Feather" but I can not find such a name in any botany. There is a ""Blazing Star" in the Lilacia family but it does not grow in this northern climate.
This flower belongs to the Pink family. It is often called "Common Soapwort", because of the soapy condition of water when the plant is crushed and worked back and forth through the water.
Bouncing Bet is a title that the plant had wished onto it because of its taking to the wilds so easily and "Bouncing over the fence" to other fields. It blooms from July to September and is found along the roads and in the fields.
The Elder is a subdivision of the Honeysuckle Family. Tribe 11 Sambuceae. We have a great deal of it around here and the fruit is used often for making of a wine. The ripe fruit is beautiful, a rich black-purple.
This flower also belongs to the Composite family. Its Latin name is "Rudbeckia" named after a Professor, Rudbeck, predecessor of Linnaeus. Brown-eyed Susan, Yellow Daisy and the Cone flower are all of the same family. This picture is of the "Tall Coneflower" that grows in abundance back of the sign-board where First Street North comes to the river about a mile up from the Green Bay depot, at the "Eddy".
"Lobelia Cardinalis" when this flower is addressed in Latin, has for its companion the beautiful Ruby-throated Humming Bird so naturally it must dress up in its best to receive so beautiful a creature. Men who know, say that there would be more cardinal flowers if there were more humming birds.
This deep throated flower must have a long billed friend to reach down into its throat and in process, transfer pollen from the other cardinal flowers it has just visited. They tell that Darwin said that for every flower there was a tongue sufficiently long to reach the goal and carry the pollen to the flower of the same plant in some in some other locality. The hunters found a flower in South America that appeared to be some three or more inches of throat that no insect would be able to reach. For a time it looked as if Darwin was wrong. Though Darwin had never seen either flower or the companion bird or insect, yet some months after this find, they also did find flying insect with just such a tongue that ran into this flower much like the boys toy that he blows and it runs out a foot. So this insect had coiled up in his head just such a tongue. Since then they have round other insects whose tongue is similarly constructed.
There is the broad leafed and the narrow leafed arrow-head. The plant adapts itself to its conditions. If the stream in which it adopts for its home is a swift running current, then it presents the least resistance to the current by growing a narrow lead, but if it finds itself in a calm water, the leaves grow very broad.
It is of the "Water Plantain Family" and is profuse along the edges of the Wisconsin River and drainage ditches and cranberry bogs. It is in bloom from June to September.
It is often called "hairy" beard tongue. This very pretty flower belongs to the Figwort family and is of the subdivision of "Penstemon" five-parted calyx. It is pinkish in color when in full bloom. Blooms from June to September and may be found along the woods on 13 below Nepco Lake. The "Giant" beard-tongue is a beautiful plant of the same family and grown along the roadside opposite the gun shoot at the tourists camp park. This plant will stand to be transplanted to your flower beds, if you take up enough of the native soil with it.
Nothing especially different about this, than a picture of other wild grape vines, except that this was a flash-light picture taken of a fine vine full of fruit on Long Island. It was taken about nine in the evening, with a cloud of mosquitoes to add to the effects.
This grows in scattered places among the woods where ever you find wild grapes growing. This was taken on the Island near the west channel above the Consolidated Dam.
This was taken in Mrs. Julius Winden’s garden and speaks for itself.
"TWIN CITY BAND"
This band was one of the many successful bands of this locality. Reading from left to right top row are: Fred Stamm, John Planke, "Dutch" Billmyer, Ed Morrill, Frank Compton. Middle Row: T. W. Brazeau, Chas. Philleo, John Schnable, Chas. Parker, Ruben Lyon, Stephen Brazeau. Front Row: Will Burt, Dell White, D. B. Philleo and Director Grant White. This picture was taken about 1893.
"ODD FELLOWS BAND"
This is the name that these players adopted and on the drum head it was lettered "Grand Rapids, Wis. IOOF Cornet Band". Reading from left to right are: John Schnable Sr. Leader, Thereon Lyon, A. F. Bandeline, Rudoply Muehlstein, Walter Wood, Russ Lyon, D. B. Philleo, E. B. Fritszinger, Reuben Lyon, Steve Demarais, Frank Morrill. Neither creed nor ritual interfered with these players for some never were in an Odd Fellow’s Hall, but they left their mark as a fine musical organization.
Frank Bliss was director of the organization from 1905 to 1910. Frank wrote several marches and was director of more than average ability. The band received an invitation from the State Fair at Milwaukee on two occasions. Reading from left to right Top row are: Fred Kruger, Ed. Morrill, Ed. Schmidt, Dan Ellis, Max Sawaske, next below: A. P. Hirzy, Chas. Halverson, Carl Fritzsinger, W. T. Noble, Geo. Davis, Drum Major, Peter Billmeyer, Gus. Kaye, Harry Little, T. A. Taylor, Emil Beck, Tony Rantz. Front row: Robt. Morris. Wm. Drumb, Alex Jones, Art Podawiltz, Frank Bliss, Director, Art Chose, George Ellis, G. D. Fritzsinger, Louis Peyruse.
The benefit of such pictures is that they satisfy the query "what did so and so look like?"
"TWIN CITY BAND"
Emil Lambert is the Director. He took on the band in 1915 and has held the musicians together from that time to this date. reading from left to right are: Top row: Drum Major: William White, August Neuberger, D. W. Middlecamp, Everett Lambert, John Kobza, Anton Walczak, M. O. Lipke, David Mewaldt, Ernest Prisler, Arthur Peters, Irving Kabitsky, Royce Fuller, E. W. Beck, George Ellis, Harry Karnitz, E. Morrill, Wm. Burt. Second Row: Eric Karburg, Ray Mass, Art Gaetke, Irving Pribineau, Noel Creed, John Suchoski, E. A. Lambert, director, J. Skarwecki, Lola Payne, Chas. Parker, Anton Walter, Earl Akey, Edward Witzig, Harold Woodell. First Row: Louis Peryuse, Earl Otto, Leo Neitzel, Geo. Monson, Lee Covey, Anton Kobza, Roy Carlson, W. T. Nobles, Leneord (sic) Romanski, A. Yanta, Roy Lemke
"ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST SOCIETY"
This society originated in Canada in the early days when the English tried to abolish the French language. To preserve this language the French Canadians organized this society. In Grand Rapids it was purely a social and benevolent organization. The society was organized here in 1873 and the first celebration was held June 24th, 1876.
Some years the celebration on June 24th exceeded the one of July 4th. The organization was maintained for 14 years. The picture selected here was one taken June 24th, 1882. The charter members were: Antoine Arpin, Didas Beaudin, Lucien Berard, Alexander Bernier, Hermanegilde Bernier, Alfred Belisle, Francois Biron, Joseph Boucher, Napoleon Boucher, Louis Boucher, Philibert Blouin, E. Bodin, Chas. Briere, Henry Briere, Jean Cardin, Joseph Chouinard, Henry Clairemont, Joseph Closuit, Louis Duford, Eugene Ethier, Leon Foisv, M. D. Francois Frechette, Ludger Gaudet, Joseph Gervair, Andre Girard, Louis Garriepy, Treffie Hamel, Henri Lambert, Jacques Lavigne, Zotique Lanouette, Omer Legendre, Henry Lussier, Antone Lavigne, Joseph Lavigne, Zotique Lord Jean Baptistie Lahaie, Victor Martin, John Martin, George Montreuil, Louis Meunier, David Martel, Maxime Meunier, Narcisse Pepin, Charles Pomainville, Adolphe Piche, Frank Pomainville, Amble Perusse, George Proteau, Charles Primeau, Paul Paradis, J. Bte. Pinsonneault, Hercule Roy, Frances Rattel, Joseph Senneville, Onesime St. Cyr, Elzear Thibodeau, Ulric St. Amour, Guilaume Verboncoeur, Moise Verboncoeur, Octave Vallee.
The procession generally started from their hall over Jos. Closuits saloon on "Front" Street, about 331 First St. N. of to-day, about nine o’clock in the morning and proceeded in line of march to the Catholic church where mass was said. In their full dress uniform, such as was worn for this occasion it made a colorful exhibit. The striking feature of the parade was the small boy dressed in a very neat white suit leading a little lamb, that had been washed to a perfect white. The picture shown was taken at the entrance of the S. S. Peter & Paul church. Father Beyerle, for reasons of his own did not seem to favor this organization and it was allowed to disband. The charter members of this society will recall to some, many familiar names, prominent in the early eighties.
The group of six gentlemen shown on this page and titled "Parishioners who were members 50 years ago" is worthy of a place in this historical sketch. The names of each is given under the picture. Mr. Lefebvre was Mrs. L. M. Nash’s father and Mrs. Lefebvre was a well known and interesting woman and the old home is shows at the top of page 57. Mr. J. D. La Breche was a very early pioneer and his show shop was a meeting place for the settlement of all problems of state and nation. Joseph Dugas was also an early settler. Antoine and John Arpin were brothers engaged in logging. Later John Arpin and his sons incorporated the John Arpin Lumber Co. and operated the saw mill plant for many years at Arpin. Francis Biron is the well known man connected with the early history and especially with his saw mill operations at Biron.
This group of men was place placed in here especially that later generation might know what sort of looking men they were and note the predominance of whiskers in the facial decorations of those days.
"OLD TIME PICTURES"
These "Old Time" illustrations are typical of the early days here as they were in the "east" where the artist lived. These were donated by Mrs. John E. Daly, (Grace Balderston) whose parents formed a part of the early day society and easily could form a part of any of these gatherings depicted. "Joe Freeman’s Store", located where the Witter Hotel "Rose Room" is to-day was a favorite gathering place for the old cronies to meet in the early evening winter hours. Other places on either side of the river could furnish just such settings as shown in the one titled "Country Store as Social Center". The pictures are of value in that they are faithful representations of social conditions and should be of interest to later generations.
Reference to pages in following articles directs you to pages in the large pictorial book.
"THIRD STREET PUMPING STATION"
The picture at the top of this page is one taken in May of 1935 of the Water Station at the foot of Third Street South. This location has never, until recently received much attention and until this year looked forsaken. The present Water & Light Commission are justly proud of the transformation they have produced and promise even more pronounced effects.
"WISCONSIN RAPIDS AND OTHER BANDS"
This is a colored plate this Milwaukee Journal put out as a sort of courtesy picture to some of the bands that appeared at the State Meet at Wausau in May. The weather was of the rainy variety and unfit for out door parades. Local band admirers may easily pick out the members from "our own band."
"MOCCASIN CREEK BRIDGE"